11 Jan. 2011. Samoan Culture 3.1 a. Mataj system and Land tenure 3.1 b. Decision-makingprocess of soalaupule 3.1 c. Tautua and fa'alayelaye and fesoasoanj 3.1 d. Aig,a and kinship networks 3.1 e. Church as integral part of fa'a-Samoa 3.2. How did they manage to successfully navigate the Pacific Ocean across vast distances using primitive technology and without maps? Many Polynesian artifacts are crafted from obsidian, which “has a restricted natural occurrence yet was transferred great distances” (Weisler 2, 1881), which makes it a relatively easy rock to trace. Over the past two centuries, anthropologists, archaeologists, scientists and historians have been trying to pinpoint the origins of Polynesians and to explain how they spread across the region we today call Polynesia...a number of issues still cause debate among specialists on the subject. Pacific migrations: red arrows show expansion from island southeast Asia, blue arrows show Polynesian expansion, yellow arrows show proposed contact with the Americas. Complicating the argument was the myth of a South American origin, advocated by some 19th-century scholars and popularised in the 20th century by the archaeologist Thor Heyerdahl. Geographical Journal, 1950. This region includes the existing Sulawesi, Lombok and Timor Islands. Polynesian Migrations Over the span of 800 years, Polynesians explored 16 million square miles of ocean and settled on every habitable island in the Pacific. ... Trois modèles ont été élaborés sur la migration de cette population de Taiwan vers la Polynésie [15] : Express Train model; D'après ce modèle élaboré dès 1985 par l'archéologue Peter Bellwood, vers 2 500 av. Polynesian Migration The origin of Polynesians, an isolated population spanning hundreds of miles of ocean and islands, has long been regarded as an interesting puzzle in human migration patterns. He argued that it was not possible for the Polynesians to have sailed east from Melanesia into the Polynesian triangle because both the winds and currents constantly would have been against them. JSTOR. In the late 1800s and early 1900s various theories had Māori originating in South America, North America, India, Greece, Egypt and Israel, among other places. Vol. 11 Jan. 2011. Cook chose the "East Indias" as the origin point for the Polynesian migration because a linguistic Sailing with Cook as his botanist was Joseph Banks, … Continental islands lie in the western Pacific, and oceanic islands in the eastern Pacific. Early theories ranged from mythical hero navigators who discovered new lands and returned home with sailing directions, to accidental voyagers who drifted away from islands to which they could not return. The path of the Lapita is marked by pottery with distinct geometric designs found in more than 200 South Pacific locations, from Papua New Guinea to Samoa (Field Museum). Lecture. There are many different theories of how the Polynesian Islands were settled, and how these settlers managed to find and voyage to these islands that are in some of the remote places in the world. Lecture. Geochemists have been able to place basaltic artifacts in both time and place, further clarifying the accepted narrative of migration from west to east. (Phys.org) —Two teams of researchers describe new developments in understanding early Polynesian migration. By contrast, a similar study was conducted in South America, with the result that Amerindians were found to be “distinct from those [mutations] found among potential ancestral populations in Asia and elsewhere” (Rickards, 525). They reconstructed a double-hulled voyaging canoe in order to test both its seaworthiness and the efficacy of traditional (i.e., noninstrumental) navigation methods over the long ocean routes that Polynesians had once … Clark also notes that only a few quarry sites existed, and that “quarries of favorable stone served considerable areas of country” (Clark, 21). While the myth of Amerindian origin has been debunked in the academic community for decades, highly publicized dissenters cloud the general public’s perception of ancient Polynesian migration. Read more... A Norwegian adventurer named Thor Heyerdahl argued in 1947 that all the experts had it wrong. Polynesian Migration RoutesPolynesian centers. 2.d. and are clearly associated with the Lapita Cultural Complex. Much of the evidence sensationalized by Kon-Tiki can also be used to support prehistoric contact; while Heyerdahl did not have sufficient proof to back up his claims, biological and cultural similarities between the two regions may suggest trade or other short-term voyaging. New Zealand, isolated far to the south, was the last substantial land mass to be reached. The timing and nature of the migration of the ancestors of the Polynesian people is debated by two competing theories. The two main theories today are called the Express Train Hypothesis and the Slow Boat Hypothesis. Oceania includes all the islands in the central and south Pacific Ocean. Did the people who would become Polynesian occupy the islands and atolls in the region in carefully planned stages or by a series of happy accidents? The Voyage of the Raft "Kon-tiki"; an Adventurous Inquiry into the Origin of the Polynesians. Timetable: 2 lessons. Le premier s'est produit il y a 50 à 70 000 ans, et a amené des Homo sapiens … Although this scenario of the immediate origins of … Cette théorie est pour la première fois retrouvée chez le naturaliste de la troisième circumnavigation de James Cook, James Forster. Furthermore, according to an article by Bruce Bower published by Science News, “the artistic motifs on the pottery are much the same as Polynesian tattoo styles that occurred centuries later” (Bower, 233). While these islands are separated by thousands of miles of open ocean, Pacific islanders’ methods of sailing and navigation were likely well-developed and quite accurate. According to this view, Polynesians are mainly a part of a migration wave that came out of Taiwan. The first explorers had no maps or navigational instruments, and there has been spirited debate among sailors and scholars as to how they settled the region. Samuel Manaiakalani Kamakau & M.K. "Prehistoric Polynesian Puzzle." The Marquesas Islands were reached between 200 BC and 300 AD, and although the evidence is so … Today, however, strong linguistic, cultural, and archaeological evidence from research in both the physical and social sciences points to colonization originating in Southeast Asia or Indonesia. Subjects with the three clusters live in geographic clusters as well. Allison Gramolini, Colgate University 567-590. Emergence of West Polynesian culture Theories about Polynesian origins: When European explorers sailed into the Pacific in the eighteenth century , they were stunned to find so many people living on the thousands of islands they encountered. 328 June 2010. Why was New Zealand one of the last places on Earth to be discovered by Humans? Ben Finney, both an anthropologist and a founding member of the Polynesian Voyaging Society, found that periodically, Southern Hemisphere trade winds weaken and weaker westerly winds prevail. The western part of Polynesia was settled between 3000 and 1000 BC by people from Taiwan via the Philippines as well as parts of New Guinea. According to a 1992 BYU publication, “A basic view held by the Church is that Polynesians have ancestral connections with the Book of Mormon people who were descendants of Abraham and that among them are heirs to blessings promised Abraham’s descendants” (1110). Heyerdahl, Thor. "Pre-European Polynesia." Thus, the magma’s chemical properties bear a stamp of sorts that provides clues to its source, and rocks from the same volcano are likely to have similar chemical properties. The large arrow shows the actual origin of the Māori people’s Polynesian ancestors – around Taiwan. 9 Jan. 2011. Ferdon, Edwin N. "Polynesian Origins." The DNA of animal bones can be analyzed, and researchers E. Matisoo-Smith and J.H. Because islands have finite resources, changes in marine ecosystems or weather could easily impact food supplies and place strain on a growing society. JSTOR. While the most obvious wind patterns would seem to contradict the Lapita ancestry model, prehistoric islanders could indeed have sailed west to east if they waited for seasonal or periodic changes. Finney conducted an experimental voyage of his own to test this assertion, and found the winds to be generally quite amenable to his travel from Samoa to Tahiti. Additionally, Finney’s article, as previously discussed, introduces the idea of variable wind patterns in the eastern tropical Pacific that could have enabled sailing from Polynesia to South America; conversely, the prevalent easterlies would easily have facilitated return home (Finney, 405). Using these methods, Weisler was able to cluster artifacts found in various locations on the Society Islands and Mangareva to specific source sites: Eiao in the Marquesas, and Mata’are in the Cook Islands (Weisler, 526 – check.) Gibbons, Ann. The common DNA, which is spread across the Pacific, suggests common ancestry of research subjects despite their East-West Pacific divide. There are three theories regarding the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia. Their first thought was, ‘How did they get here?’ Over the past two centuries, anthropologists, archaeologists, scientists and historians have been trying to pinpoint the … He argued that it was not possible for the Polynesians to have sailed east from Melanesia into the Polynesian triangle because both the winds and currents constantly would have been against them. Stone tools are an important element of the “systemic cultural systems,” and similarities across the Pacific can be tracked. 115. Probably, exploring voyagers made discoveries and then returned home; migrating voyagers could then set off, sailing directly to known destinations. However little evidence supports his theory apart from the use of sweet potatoes in both areas. A theory he based on the physical … Peter … Mythology and folklore Language Easter island; Polynesia - Introduction Polynesia is part of what is more broadly classified as Oceania. Web. Cultural and linguistic evidence further supports the west-to-east migration pattern, with striking similarities observed across the Polynesian Triangle. Bower, Bruce. He further elaborates on the multitude of factors involved, suggesting that “we should expect to find, among other things, that human cognitive processes of planning, decision-making, collective action and the like must have been part of what happened, e.g. JSTOR. American Association for the Advancement of Science March 2, 2001 291.5509: 1735-737. The smaller arrows show their migration through Melanesia and across the Pacific. SPICE Lecture. Island geology and migration “Deciphering the riddle of Lapita.” Pacific Anthropology at the Field Museum. in 1994 identified three distinct gene clusters shared by most Polynesians in the study. “Colonization of the Pacific Islands.” Paper given at the Society for American Archaeology Meeting, Nashville 1997. When we talk about migration, it is important to distinguish between some terms that, although they are quite similar, they have different connotations.So, let’s look at them separately.The first term that we need to Web. One of the supposed theories is the Indigenous Taiwanese theory also an explanation on While the 1986 winds were unusual, Finney estimates similar patterns in one of ten years (Finney, 405), and given that the migration across the Pacific took place across hundreds of years, this is a more than sufficient frequency for these so-called “anomalous westerlies” to have played a role in dispersal. While Weisler’s geochemical analysis is as yet in its early stages, it has already provided evidence for prehistoric inter-island transport and opens up doors to promising future research. Woods Hole, MA. American Anthropologist 90.2 (1988): 401-05. According to Edwin M. Ferdon, “without population control, this was likely to become a cyclic issue" (502). Contrary to past theories of chance arrivals on islands, and the idea that Polynesians were descended from Americans, the similarities among Melanesians, Asians and Polynesians in their culture and shared archaeological record are quite conclusive. However, while he proved that such a voyage could theoretically occur, he lacked evidence to prove that such a voyage in fact had occurred. 10 Jan. 2011. Heyerdahl’s experimental voyage was widely publicized and was the accepted narrative for Polynesian migration for decades. However, we must exercise caution when attempting to speculate or oversimplify motives for such distant historical events. Clark highlights the existence of trade and the transport of goods from one island to another, and while he does not explicitly argue for the existence of inter-island exchange of people it is not difficult to imagine that this would exist among a people for whom trade was so well-established. Follow their pattern of settlement Lesson Objectives: What do scientist believe how the Polynesians settle such small islands in the middle of the world's largest ocean? The Polynesian language that eventually emerged was a combination of several primitive Aryan tongues. During El Niño events, these winds may persist for longer and extend further east (Finney, 402). Polynesia in Early Historic times. Lum, J. Kohi et al. "Myth, Experiment, and the Reinvention of Polynesian Voyaging." During the last 5,000 years there have been periods when El Niño weather patterns became more frequent. Current Anthropology 39.4 (1998): 521-32. Heyerdahl constructed a raft of balsa wood based on historical accounts of “Peruvian reed-boats,” which bore some similarities to a “rudimentary ‘raft-ship’” found in Tahiti (Heyerdahl, 23). Thor Heyerdahl was the Norwegian scientist in 1940s who theorized the origin of Polynesians from South America using the Kon tiki raft to prove possible species migration. Robins were able to separate remains into three major haplogroups that are divided into distinct geographic locations (Robins, 2). “Beyond Kon-Tiki: Did Polynesians Sail to South America?” Science vol. The origin of Polynesians, an isolated population spanning hundreds of miles of ocean and islands, has long been regarded as an interesting puzzle in human migration patterns. Then a more modern explorer, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to Polynesia largely by ocean currents, suggesting South America was the Polynesian homeland. Archaeology suggests that the migration eastward occurred in roughly two waves, the first occurring in the Bismarck Archipelago, Samoa and Tonga from 1600–1200 BC, and the second occurring later and spreading to the outer reaches of the Polynesian Triangle, bordered by Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand. Teaching and Learning Activities: Research the scientific theories for the origin of the Polynesian settlers. Maamaatuaiahutapu, Keitapu. Prior to the existence of scientific evidence such as DNA and geochemical analysis, speculation regarding Pacific Islanders’ origins often suggested origin in the Americas, based on certain cultural and biological similarities between the two regions’ indigenous societies. Then a more modern explorer, Norwegian Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to Polynesia largely by ocean currents, suggesting South America was the Polynesian homeland. Early European explorers like James Cook noted similarities in the language used on different islands thus establishing a link between Pacific peoples. It would have been pointless to send migratory canoes carrying people, plants and animals. Perspectives: different points of view or theories about the Polynesian expansion across the Pacific Significance: ... • Students investigate various theories of Polynesian migrations, including those of Thor Heyerdahl, relating to ancient crossings of the Pacific Ocean. Because this method takes both chemical ratios in the mantle and the age of the rock into account, it is able to narrow possible obsidian sources further than the previous method (Weisler 2, 1882). Science magazine’s Andrew Lawler wrote a scathing critique of Heyerdahl this past year, accusing Heyerdahl of “souring academia” and of publicizing the “racist assumptions” that Polynesians’ ancestors had traveled from the Middle East to South America to the Pacific, “where they bestowed civilization on dark-skinned peoples” (Lawler, 1345). Finney, Ben. Easter… This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. this Polynesian migration theory, Scientists experimented with DNA tests on Maori people; the results ascertain that the Maori have DNA traces of the Polynesian people. Because migration from South America to the Polynesian Islands would be easily facilitated by prevalent easterlies in the tropical Pacific, several prominent scholars made claims that islanders were descended from ancient Peruvians or other Amerindian peoples. Weisler, Marshall I. The first subjects are from Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga, and Micronesia; the second are from Hawaii and Samoa; and the third are from French Polynesia, with one Samoan subject sharing similar DNA (Lum, 576-577). (10) The Polynesians Prehistory of an Island People. "Voyaging against the Direction of the Trades: A Report of an Experimental Canoe Voyage from Samoa to Tahiti." JSTOR. migration and is commonly referred to as Wallacea. L'Océanie est un ensemble géographique dont les frontières sont discutées, mais qui regroupe généralement l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Guinée, la Mélanésie, la Micronésie et la Polynésie [Note 1]. Furthermore, at least in Maori society, “the exchange of commodities between one group and another, despite their bellicosity and rivalry, was well-developed.” (Clark, 24). When European explorers discovered the Polynesian people on there islands, there was a consistent present of the slim built Polynesian … Web. Woods Hole, MA. Terrell reminds us that “people had been sailing around the Solomons and the islands of the Pacific to the west of that archipelago for a very long time” before the first migration (Terrell, 6). In a speech given at the Society for American Archaeology meeting in 1997, John Edward Terrell of Chicago’s Field Museum acknowledged that motives for migration are too impossibly complex to determine centuries after the occurrence (Terrell, 2). While the prevalent wind direction in the eastern tropical Pacific is easterly, seasonal and cyclic anomalies based on El Niño periodically enable travel from west to east. His July 1986 excursion on the Hokule‘a, a historically reconstructed Hawaiian voyaging canoe, found that “during the voyage those days in which winds blew from an easterly, trade wind direction were outnumbered by those days in which the wind blew from the north, northwest, southwest, and south, all directions favorable for sailing to the east” (Finney, 403). The patterns occur when waters of the tropical eastern Pacific warm up. The people of the ancient period (50,000–25,000 BC) had a palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) technology and a hunting and foraging economy. "Hard Evidence for Prehistoric Interaction in Polynesia." Adzes used for each purpose had distinctive shapes, and similar styles were found across the region. Additionally, Polynesian society was highly stratified, and territory was divided between ari’i, or noble families. This causes the prevailing south-easterly trade winds to weaken, while the frequency of westerly winds increases. On Niutao, Funafuti and Vaitupu the … Many New Zealand place names, preserved by later generations of Māori people, recall his journey. Le peuplement préhistorique de l'Océanie s'est fait à travers deux grands mouvements d'expansion. The similarity in iconography is unlikely to be coincidental, especially if it had religious significance, because this suggests a coherent belief system that may have spread as a whole. The new data suggests the epic voyage could have been achieved in a couple of weeks during these climate windows, four times faster than during other periods with less favourable wind conditions – especially when travelling in the type of canoe … Polynesians likely originated from the Lapita people, who originated in Melanesia, the region north of Australia that includes the modern countries of Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia. Decorated Lapita pottery evolved into Polynesian plainware, and there were other changes in technology and settlement. There were two distinct voyaging periods. American Anthropologist 93.2 (1991): 383-404. (2000) and ... with Tuvalu providing a stepping stone for migration into the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia and Micronesia. The author and a small crew, with neither sailing experience nor archaeological training, embarked on a voyage from Peru to Tahiti in 1947 that met with remarkably positive results. Society for Science and the Public Oct 10, 1987 132.15: 232-33. The Express Train Hypothesis says that Polynesians come originally from Taiwan by way of the Philippines and Melanesia. People across the Pacific also speak similar Austronesian languages, which Terrell describes as “the inheritance of ancestral characteristics by the direct biological, cultural and linguistic descendants of the people who first started speaking in these ways” (Terrell, 4). Despite predominant easterly winds in the subtropical Pacific, Polynesian navigational skills and the aid of cyclic or seasonal changes in the winds and currents enabled dispersal from the western Pacific to islands as distant as Easter Island and Hawaii. Web. Ancient voyaging: from Asia to Near Oceania Instead, Heyerdahl proposed that the Polynesians must have left the west coast of … In short, the reasons that Pacific peoples dispersed from west to east may never be known, given the complexity of human decision making; there were probably a host of factors involved, including a limitation of resources but also including various other socio-emotional reasons. The church teaches that “among Polynesian ancestors were the people of Hagoth, who set sail from Nephite lands in approximately 54 BC“ (1111). Stone tools dated to around 800,000 years ago have been found on the island of Flores, midway between Java and Australia. The discovery was made by  reconstructing historic wind patterns and sea level pressure conditions over the last 1200 years. Honolulu, HI: Bess, 2002. Stories about his exploration on his canoe, the Matawhaorua or Matahorua, differ from region to region but often feature a fight with a great wheke (octopus). They brought their world view with them when they arrived in Hawai`i by voyaging canoe from the southern Pacific (primarily the Marquesas), settling the islands circa 300-600 AD. MIRAB theory (has elements of above theories) 3. The rat, which cannot swim and cannot disperse to islands without the help of humans, was believed to be brought along on voyages as a food source (Robins, 1). Finney, Ben R. "Anomalous Westerlies, El Nino, and the Colonization of Polynesia." It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Cultural similarities, such as the presence of outriggers on canoes from New Zealand to Melanesia to the Society Archipelago, also point to a shared ancestry. There are two main types of island in the Pacific: continental and oceanic. Given the Church’s prominent evangelization efforts in Polynesia, as well as its active media presence, its propagations of these beliefs are influential. JSTOR. Web. JSTOR. According to the Field Museum of Chicago, new understanding in the iconography–now interpreted to represent sea turtles–helps to “fill the temporal gap between practices and beliefs in Lapita times and the present day” (Field Museum). Stories as to the ancestors of the Tuvaluans vary from island to island. Excerpts from the … For example, the presence of similar genetic mutations in Hawaiians and Samoans suggests common family lineages in two geographically distant places. A study conducted by J. Koji Lum et al. Web. https://libguides.stalbanssc.vic.edu.au/polynesian-expansion, The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific, Polynesian Explorers: Packing a Waka Interactive - Puke Ariki Museum Libraries Tourist Information Taranaki New Zealand. J.-C., des migrations … The group found common genetic mutations among about 30-40% of East Asians and nearly all Polynesians and many Hawaiians studied (Lum, 571). Cann said evidence for the Taiwan theory is both genetic … Migration Theories Culture and Society; Resources and Environment; Maori Toggle Dropdown. The Polynesian peoples themselves provide clues to their prehistoric origins via DNA testing. American Anthropologist 87.1 (1985): 9-26. The first people arrived in the Western Pacific areas of Australia and New Guinea at least 50-60,000 years ago, according to Terrell (Terrell, 5). The “Express Train” and “Slow Boat” theorie s assert that the migration of the Proto-Polynesian people began around 6,000 years before present (BP) or around 10,000 years BP respectively. A Norwegian adventurer named Thor Heyerdahl argued in 1947 that all the experts had it wrong. The Pacific was the first ocean to be explored and settled, and its history is one of the voyages. 1st ed. Setting off in simple rafts, they gradually dispersed through the large islands of South-East Asia. Andrew Lawler of Science magazine describes Polynesians as “the great premodern seafarers” who used “sails and sophisticated navigation techniques [to] peopl[e] most South Pacific Islands” (1344), and Marshall Weisler notes that “nearly every inhabitable island was occupied by AD 1000” (Weisler 2, 1881). The researchers grouped subjects’ DNA into three “major lineage clusters,” all of which share common nucleotide deletions or substitutions. Print. Some researchers think El Niño … Polynesian origins are most immediately traced to people who arrived in the Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa region ≈3,000 B.P. Cette théorie a été, depuis, réfutée par la communauté scientifique, celle-ci ayant prouvé que ce continent n’avait jamais existé et que l’apparition simultané de l’homme en différents points du globe était improbable. Does Heyerdahl convincingly prove his theories? Heyerdahl’s theories were based largely on speculation and original thought; however, his daring journey and engaging narrative caught the eye of the public and convinced many intelligent people that South Americans and Polynesians were in fact related. According to Patrick V. Kirch and Robert Green, whose study of cultural evolution in Polynesia was published in Current Anthropology, “the tribes, societies or ethnic groups of ‘Triangle Polynesia’ share a physical type, systemic cultural patterns, and historically related languages which allow them to be grouped together as a unit of historical analysis or … a phylogenetic evolutionary unit” (Kirch and Green, 164). A second Weisler study used ratios of lead isotopes to further analyze the geochemistry, a method that may result in more accurate placement of artifacts in place and time. Eventually, they reached Australia and New Guinea, which were then connected by a land bridge. While west-to-east migration is nearly universally accepted in the academic world, there is some interesting evidence suggesting prehistoric contact, if not migration, between Pacific Islanders and Amerindians in modern-day Peru. His team at Macquarie University in Sydney revealed several windows around 800-1300 AD when it was easier to sail from the central Pacific, around Tonga and the Southern Cook Islands, to NZ and Easter Island. JSTOR. The researchers used blood samples of subjects from a variety of ethnicities, including Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, Micronesian, Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Thai, Cambodian, Burmese, Hmong, Aborigine, and Papua New Guinean, as well as “control groups” of Africans and Europeans (Lum, 569). Des Océaniens ; 3.1.3 L'origine sud-américaine ; 3.2 L'origine asiatique this browser you. Stone tools dated to around 800,000 years ago have been pointless to send migratory canoes carrying people, recall journey! Because islands have finite Resources, changes in technology and without maps, Nashville 1997 lineage,... The … migration theories Culture and society ; Resources and Environment ; Maori Toggle.! 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Would have been found on the island of Flores, midway between and! This browser, you may see unexpected results his theory apart from the use sweet. Of Humans across the Pacific Islands. ” Paper given at the society for Science and the Colonization Polynesia... The Mormon Church has also spread the idea of East-West migration classified as Oceania early European explorers like James noted. Frequency of westerly winds increases who arrived in the central and South Pacific Ocean across vast distances using primitive and! 66.4 August 1994 2003 translation of PULEMELEI in Savai ' i within the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia Micronesia. Some researchers think El Niño … Polynesian migration RoutesPolynesian centers is debated by competing... Some researchers think El Niño events, these winds may persist for longer and further. Travel eastwards from Papua New Guinea or westwards from South America in occupation... – around Taiwan “ major lineage clusters, ” all of which share common nucleotide deletions substitutions... Rafts, they reached Australia and New Guinea, which is spread across Polynesian. Terrell, 3 ) read more... a Norwegian adventurer named Thor Heyerdahl argued in 1947 all.