On March 29, 1857, on the parade ground at Barrackpore, a sepoy named Mangal Pandey fired the first shot of the uprising. Both Muslim and Hindu soldiers refused to use these cartridges and staged an uprising when they were forced to use them. The East India Company had been active in India for nearly 250 years, but the violence of the 1857 uprising led to the British government dissolving the company and taking direct control of India. Pandey rebelled by shooting a British sergeant-major and a lieutenant. The Sepoys in the East India Company were first issued with the Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket in 1857. The Encyclopedia Americana however, says that it was derived from vegetables. As mutineers were captured, they were often killed on the spot, and many were executed in dramatic fashion. Clubs & Grounds . A New Type of Rifle Cartridge Caused Problems . The rifle featured cartridges that contained 68 grains of black powder and had a ball that was typically 530-grain Pritchett or Burton-Minié. In Mangal Pandey … in the mid-1850s, a new Enfield rifle was introduced into India that required a soldier to bite off the ends of greased cartridges in order to load the weapon. To what extent was the issue of the greased cartridge from the Enfield rifle the key reason for the Revolt of 1857? Loading involved biting the end of the cartridge, which was greased in pig fat and beef tallow. It is a watershed in the history of pre-independent and early colonial India. Each of the weapon’s paper cartridges contained a precise amount of powder and a .577- caliber Minié ball. Outraged by events such as the massacre of women and children at Cawnpore, some British officers believed that hanging mutineers was too humane. Queen Victoria, at the prompting of Benjamin Disraeli, announced to Parliament that her Indian subjects were "happy under My rule and loyal to My throne.". In 1877, outside Delhi, essentially in the spot where bloody fighting had taken place 20 years earlier, an event called the Imperial Assemblage was held. This provided the opportunity for circulating rumours that the paper was sealed with animal grease, either beef tallow or pork lard. The cartridges to be used for the Enfield Rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The rest of the cartridge, including the ball, was then forced down with a ramrod. The traditional story of the Sepoy Mutiny is that the introduction of a new cartridge for the Enfield rifle provoked much of the trouble. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a .577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifle-musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider-Enfield rifle. Loading the Enfield required tearing open the greased cartridge with one's teeth. The Lee-Enfield rifles were the mainstay of the British and their Commonwealth partners through both World Wars. The immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny in India in 1857 was the belief that the Lee-Enfield rifle's cartridges were greased with cow and/or pig fat. The Enfield rifle and cartridge The P-53 was officially known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. The uprising was put down, but the methods employed by the British were so harsh that many in the western world were offended. I have read both. Under a British policy called the "doctrine of lapse," the East India Company would take control of Indian states in which a local ruler had died without an heir. This resource will grow as the Museum's Collection is catalogued and computerised, and as new acquisitions are added. By the 1850s the East India Company controlled much of India. A New Type of Rifle Cartridge Caused Problems, The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company, Indian Rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow, Seven Years' War: Major General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, Biography of Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, independence movement against British rule. The new Pattern 1858 gun with a different bore (0.656) was introduced to quell any uneasiness among the Indian sepoys and assurances were given that the cartridges were not dipped in beef or pork fat. Does anybody know if the cartridges were actually greased with fat, or if it was a plain rumor? One common punishment was to tie mutineers to the mouth of a cannon and then fire the cannon, completely obliterating the victim. His unit in the Bengal Army, which had refused to use the new rifle cartridges, was about to be disarmed and punished. The standard method of loading was to bite the top off the cartridge and then pour the powder down the barrel. Introduced in the British Army by the War Department during 1854 in the Crimean War, they proved very effective at a range of 50 to 300 yards (270 m). Believe it or not, it was the ‘Enfield Rifle’. During 1857, rumours began to circulate among the Bengal Army's sepoys that the cartridges were deliberately greased with pig and cow fat, offensive to Moslems and Hindus, in order to defile them. The cartridges were wrapped in paper, which had been coated in grease which made the cartridges easier to load in rifle barrels. The uprising was officially declared over on July 8, 1859. Illustrations of events tended to reinforce Victorian notions of honor and bravery. Later that month, Sepoy troopers at Meerut, Bengal, refused to use the new Enfield rifle cartridges, and, as … Rumours spread that the cartridges for the new rifle were greased with pig and cow fat. There is no question that atrocities were committed by both sides, and stories of events of 1857–58 lived on in both Britain and India. The Sepoy Mutiny was a violent and very bloody uprising against British rule in India in 1857. - 26695726 In an elaborate ceremony, Lord Lytton, the serving viceroy of India, honored a number of Indian princes. A rumour spread that the lubricant used was either cow or pig lard, which was repugnant to Hindus or Muslims, respectively.… Books and articles about the bloody fighting and heroic deeds by British officers and men were published for decades in London. In the altercation, Pandey was surrounded by British troops and shot himself in the chest. £50.00 £41.67. Add to Wish List Add to Compare. The P-53 Enfield rifle made use of a Metford-Pritchitt cartridge that necessitated the use of a heavy paper tube containing 2½ drams (68 grains) of musket powder and a 530-grain (34 g), pure lead bullet. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, sepoys tended to take great pride in their military prowess, and they exhibited enormous loyalty to their British officers. ShotGun Cartridges . But the 1853 Enfield Musket had found its mark. Fighting in some places continued well into 1858, but the British were ultimately able to establish control. Throughout May and June 1857 more units of Indian troops mutinied against the British. A popular American illustrated magazine, "Ballou's Pictorial", published a full-page woodcut illustration showing the preparations for such an execution in its issue of October 3, 1857. In some cases, they used an execution method of lashing a mutineer to the mouth of a cannon, and then firing the cannon and literally blasting the man to pieces. CentreFire Rimfire 17HMR . And when the Indian independence movement gained momentum in the 20th century, events of the Revolt of 1857 were viewed as having been an early battle for independence, while individuals such as Mangal Pandey were hailed as early national heroes. Controversy of the Enfield Rifle. The Enfield P53 was introduced to Indian troops under British rule in 1856. The revolt took place on 10th May, 1857 in the town of Meerut, India. Any British plans to reform Indian society, which had been one of the underlying causes of the revolt, were essentially set aside, and religious conversion of the Indian population was no longer viewed as a practical goal. The British based their experimental rifle on the Mauser action, just as the Americans had, and developed a high-velocity, high-pressure .276-caliber rimless cartridge for the weapon. The events of 1857 have been considered the first outbreak of an independence movement against British rule. Loading and firing a .577 cal 1853 Enfield rifle-musket using a paper cartridge containing 60 grains of black powder and a 460 grain lead minie ball pre-lubricated with Bore Butter and beeswax. The rest of the cartridge, including the ball, was then forced down with a ramrod. Robert J. McNamara is a history expert and former magazine journalist. ... CIVIL WAR ENFIELD STYLE SPANISH CONTRACT MODEL 1857 OR P1857 PERC. Each area had a leader. There is no doubt that conflict over the new rifle cartridges sparked the uprising in 1857, but the reality is that social, political, and even technological reforms had set the stage for what happened. The spark that led to a mutiny in several sepoy companies was the issue of new gunpowder cartridges for the Enfield rifle in February, 1857. Also, does anyone know of any good documentaries on the British in India? Sepoys in the British East India Company's armies in India were issued with the new rifle in 1857, and rumours were spread that the cartridges (referring here to paper-wrapped powder and projectile, not to metallic cartridges) were greased with beef tallow, pig fat, or a combination of the two – a situation abhorrent to Hindu and Muslim soldiers based on religious bel… In the illustration, a mutineer was depicted chained to the front of a British cannon, awaiting his imminent execution, as others were gathered to watch the grisly spectacle. Eley Cartridges . Gun Maintenance . This presented a problem for native soldiers, as pig fat is a haraam, or forbidden, substance to Muslims, and beef fat is, likewise, deemed inauspicious for certain … This punishment incensed their comrades, who rose on May 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhi, where there were no European troops. Large numbers of native soldiers, known as sepoys, were employed by the company to maintain order and defend trading centers. Britain, of course, would rule India well into the 20th century. The 1854 Infantry Manual specified that to load, the soldier should bite the end off … This paper had to be bitten off before the cartridge was loaded into the rifle -The grease used in the paper was made of beef and pig fat. So what was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857? It was introduced in the Bengal Army by the East India Company in early 1857. He was Amazon.com's first-ever history editor and has bylines in New York, the Chicago Tribune, and other national outlets. Fiocchi Cartridges . Enfield Pattern 1853 Percussion Rifle Musket cartridges, 1857 (c) Cartridges for most muzzle-loading firearms of the period took the form of a paper tube containing a ball and powder. A number of Indians began to suspect that the British intended to convert the Indian population to Christianity. It was introduced in the Bengal Army by the British East India Company in early-1857. World War I-era arms, left to right, include the 12-gauge shotgun with bayonet attached, American Enfield, and Springfield rifles. Along with the previously mentioned illustration in Ballou's Pictorial, numerous American newspapers published accounts of the violence in India. The grotesque executions by cannon became even became widely known in America. In the 1870s the British government formalized its role as an imperial power. Unlike existing percussion muskets, the Enfield's grooved bore required the cartridge to be greased to allow loading. The standard method of loading was to bite the top off the cartridge and then pour the powder down the barrel. A private company which first entered India to trade in the 1600s, the East India Company had eventually transformed into a diplomatic and military operation. A spark ignited the resentment when it was rumoured that the pre-packaged cartridges for the newly introduced Enfield rifles were coated with tallow from beef and pig fat. A rumor was spread that the cartridges were made from cow and pig fat. And the uprising became extremely violent. Cartridges for most muzzle-loading firearms of the period took the form of a paper tube containing a ball and powder. Its cartridges consisted of a .577 inch ball projectile and a charge of gun powder propellant wrapped in waterproofed cartridge paper. Add to Cart. 17th-19th century only, not 20th. The new ‘Enfield Rifle’ introduced by the British in the army needed a special type of cartridge which had a greased paper cover. The cartridge … Q. ... Lee Enfield SMLE Air Rifle Sling . It is also known by other names: the Indian Mutiny, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, or the Indian Revolt of 1857. This made them offensive to both Muslims and Hindus, and added weight to … Quite rare possible Confederate use period copy of the P1853 rifle musket and made by various Sp ...Click for more info. New cartridges Matters came to a head following the introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle. As the mutiny spread, the British began called mutineers "pandies." Yes, a rifle led to the need for a revolt! For more than 150 years historians have maintained that India’s first revolt against British rule broke out at least in part over a gun—to be precise, the muzzle-loading Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket. It was developed at the Enfield arsenal by James P. Lee and fired a .303 caliber ammunition that had to manually loaded before firing. £20.00 £16.67. Rumors began to spread that the grease used to make the cartridges was derived from pigs and cows, which would be highly offensive to Muslims and Hindus. The cow is sacred to Hindus and the pig is a taboo to the Muslims. There was also a general feeling that English officers were losing touch with the Indian troops under them. As the bullet contained no annular grease rings like the French and American minie ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was … Pandey, it should be noted, is considered a hero in India, and has been portrayed as a freedom fighter in films and even on an Indian postage stamp. The traditional story of the Sepoy Mutiny is that the introduction of a new cartridge for the Enfield rifle provoked much of the trouble. January 1857 : Enfield rifle and cartridges The British authorities officially adopted the Enfield rifle, but in the first place it was issued to the rifle regiments. Later in April sepoy troopers at Meerut refused the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were given long prison terms, fettered, and put in jail. Historians like J.A.B. Add to Cart. The Revolt of 1857 was the rebellion of Indian sepoys against the British officers. Justify the statement. The system was subject to abuse, and the company used it to annex territories in a questionable manner. The Lee-Enfield had its origins in the late 19th century, when repeating rifles firing full-powered cartridges were coming to the fore. The sepoys were generally under the command of British officers. Sepoy units in the south of India remained loyal, but in the north, many units of the Bengal Army turned on the British. Most famously, the introduction of the Enfield rifle to Indian troops (sepoys) in 1857, issued with cartridges lubricated with mutton tallow, provided one of the catalysts to the Great Mutiny of 1857. Sepoys throughout India were issued with a new, more powerful and more accurate gun, the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifled musket. Increasing numbers of Christian missionaries began arriving in India, and their presence gave credence to rumors of impending conversions. Origin of the Mutiny . Lee Enfield SMLE Spare Magazine . Following the fighting of 1857–58, India was legally considered a colony of Britain, ruled by a viceroy. When in March 1857, Sepoy Mangal Pandey attacked British officers at the military garrison in Barrackpore, he was arrested and then executed on 8 April. Enfield cartridges and Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 Were the cartridges for the Enfield rifle really greased in pig and cow fat, or was that just a rumor? The Enfield rifle-musket was a contributing cause of the Indian rebellion of 1857. As the East India Company annexed Indian states in the 1840s and 1850s, the Indian soldiers in the company's employ began to feel offended. The greased cartridges in the newly introduced Enfield rifles was the immediate Cause of the Revolt of 1857’. He survived and was put on trial and hanged on April 8, 1857. Express Cartridges . Pattern 1853 Enfield Ammunition A history of the development of the ammunition used in the first successful general-issue military rifle 1st Lieutenant Brett Gibbons, Ordnance Corps, USAR December, 2016 Foreword A great deal has been written about the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket by … Palmer and John Kaye trace the origins of the soldiers’ rebellion at Meerut to the Lee-Enfield Rifle. In Britain and in the West, it was almost always portrayed as a series of unreasonable and bloodthirsty uprisings spurred by falsehoods about religious insensitivity. The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops.The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. The cartridges were wrapped in paper, which had been coated in grease which made the cartridges easier to load in rifle barrels. THREE BAND RIFLE MUSKET, DATED 1864. In India, it has been viewed quite differently. The Online Collection showcases a selection of our objects for you to discover and explore. https://collection.nam.ac.uk/detail.php?acc=1972-03-37-1, National Army Museum, Royal Hospital Road, London, SW3 4HTRegistered Charity Number: 237902. The soldiers' fears were one of the main factors in causing the Indian Mutiny (1857-1859). Victoria added the title "Empress of India" to her royal title. But in the 1830s and 1840s, tensions began to emerge. Decoying . 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