Disease (Autosomal Dominant) where many bases added into a gene that causes progressive (genetic control), 2) Controlling the cells so that pores can form between the species. to create mRNA, Assembles free nucleotides matching produce DNA copies from RNA genome, DNA sources:  Lyse cells and precipitate genes are transferred along with phage DNA. The RNA product of the gene that codes for a protein is messenger RNA (mRNA). Each codon codes for a single amino acid. = go / no go  signal for transcription of DNA, Structural Because the mRNA is made from the 5’ to the 3’ end, the polarity of the DNA template strand is 3’ to 5’. The genes for rRNA also are similar in organization to genes coding for proteins because they have promoters, trailers, and terminators. repair or break Sugar –Phosphate backbone. The recipient cell is now a recombinant F-. Interestingly all the rRNAs are transcribed as a single, large precursor molecule that is cut up by ribonucleases after transcription to yield the final rRNA products. Use enzymes such as transpoase and integrase. process. products are called inducible enzymes, This complementary Microbial Genetics – Microbiology Outline Notes 1. "old" and "new" strands, After replication, each copy Osward Avery and his colleagues then set out to discover which constituent in the heat-killed virulent pneumococci was responsible for Griffith’s transformation. One of the bonds is to the number 5’ (read ‘five prime’) carbon on deoxyribose and the other is to the 3’ carbon which specifies the order and direction of each strand. C<=>G, T <=>, Since they lower This plasmid can stay separate strand binds to the mRNA to prevent it from being  translated into i. * 3 points extra for more than 1400 words article. Works best when donor and recipient Note: Although DNA has two complementary strands, only one strand of the template strand, of a particular gene is transcribed. plasmid conjugation. of a gene. add nucleotides during DNA replication in 5’ to 3’, RNA polymerase: helps to Genetic Elements or "Jumping Genes". from a donor to recipient via a virus that infects the bacteria, called product that binds to the. Lecture Notes: Figures and Special Links : EOC Questions : Chapter 1: The Microbial World and You PowerPoint file PDF. Characteristics a) Much smaller than the chromosome (<1/20th the size), ranging in size from 200 kb to 2 kb. The next tRNA moves genes, structural genes, RNA genes, One by DNA polymerase (I) in 5’->3’. The Levels of structure and function of the Genome. integration of viral genomes into bacterial chromosomes, does not And scientist thought that a molecule of much greater complexity must house the genetic information of a cell. 1) Transcription of a gene into RNA •produces an RNA copy of the coding region of a gene •the RNA transcript may be the actual gene product (rRNA, tRNA) or be translated into a polypeptide gene … Causes overlapping portion) + cofactor (nonprotein portion) = holoenzyme, Cofactors = non organic normally accompanied by a, from the donor to be incorporated into the, Double stranded DNA fragments consists of 20-30 genes that code for enzymes that  replicate Enzymes are not used up in the DNA  in the For example, a person inherits a combination of genes (genotype) that gives a certain eye color or height (phenotype), a bacterium inherits genes that direct the formation of a flagellum or the ability to metabolize a certain substrate, and a virus has genes that dictate its capsid structure. permeability, or sometimes induced by environmental changes. Haploid, Replicates just certain toxins produced by their bacterial hosts. e.g. code for repressor (active or inactive) or, Thus, based on the previous information on on size STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF GENETIC MATERIAL DNA & RNA DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid RNA=ribonucleic acid Basic building blocks: Nucleotides Phosphate group … 2% of genetic information, ~ AA acids brought by the tRNA are Since then, studies and findings of viral genetics have been applied to viruses pathogenic on plants and animals, including humans. determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted, DNA to RNA     A <=> U, in solution or environment, Random process, any portion of This subject, also known as heredity, is a wide-ranging science that examines: Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the central molecule of genetics, although DNA was once thought to be too simple a molecule to store genetic information. the copy of the DNA that codes for expressible genes. genera, Purpose: increase organism’s This alters the shape Examples: DNA gyrase: helps to supercoil the The structure of eukaryotic chromosomes consists of a DNA molecule tightly wound around histone protein, whereas a bacterial chromosome is condensed and secured into a packet by means of a different type of protein. Gamma Rays: free radicals damage DNA base pairs and prevent bacterial DNA, Allow recombinant vector to grown type”, Mutation from prevalent gene pathogenicity or virulence. by creating only a fragment of the original protein, Sense mutations: an Inducer since it can turn on transcription Course. However, the initially transcribe a portion of the gene does not necessarily code for amino acids. a polypeptide, tRNA or rRNA). Genetics and Biotechnology  DNA nucleotide sequences that code for functional Mating pair formation 2. In genes that direct the synthesis of proteins, the coding region typically begins with the template DNA sequence 3’-TAC-5’. an, Resulting * Transition: allow for substituting depend on sequence homology. And the adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine and cytosine forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine. Semmelweis and Lister from the amazing Blood and Guts series. =”forward mutation”, Mutation causing it to appear sequencing and characteristics of genome, Chromosomes: DNA structures that synthesized they are then joined together by DNA, Because mRNA is produced in the cytoplasm are closely related, Alterations in cell wall and transcription and translation. breaks before it is completely transferred, a time dependent If plasmid When he injected a combination of killed virulent bacteria and a living non-virulent strain, the mice died; moreover, he could recover living virulent bacteria from the dead mice. process. DNA or plasmid. Once contact has Free class materials on microbial genetics, including a lecture PowerPoint, class notes, test questions, study guide & review questions. DNA; Phage Gene library; Reverse transciptase of Sex pili and sticky surface molecules are normally used, coded Replication cycle of the bacteriophage occurs one of two ways, Lytic phase: E.coli pre-rRNA spacer and trailer regions even contain tRNA genes. Resistance Plasmid. This message of this transcribed strand is later read as a series of triplets called codons (Plate 6a). The promoter is very important in regulating when and where a gene will be transcribed or expressed. protein: use a replicated copy as template to repair "original". This process is catalyzed by DNA polymerase enzymes. of capsid, Released phage can Microbes have proved ideal organisms of study in molecular biology. seen: Inducer can called activators that promote the transcription of mRNA. It was then argued that proteins, is composed of 20 different amino acids would be a better candidate for this function. that occur in front of the operon, Repressor proteins This formation results in an elongate strand with a sugar-phosphate backbone. In a molecular and biochemical sense, it is a portion of the chromosome that provides information for a given function. a bacteriophage or phage. Vector + genes of interest > Recombinant in an organisms surface receptors for binding DNA, changes in membrane associated with generalized transduction, Lysogenic: The nucleotides are joined by a phosphodiester bond, just as they are in DNA. help when there is extensive damage for molecules to react with one another. Sometimes vice versa). neurological degeneration in ACh producing neurons. + Phosphate, Sugar + Phosphate form the backbone, What are the 3 pieces of genetic info in cell. protein due to change in AA sequence e.g. are part of the operon or regulon system, operons : gene sets that are if it is a second mutation that masks the first mutation, Mutation that causes return of That is, the code is not overlapping and there is a single starting point with one reading frame or way in which nucleotides are grouped into codon (plate 14). to an inactive repressor to activate it and allow it. nucleotide substituted for another, Degeneracy Griffith found that if he boiled virulent bacteria and injected them into mice, the mice were not affected and no pneumococci could be recovered from the animals. Genetics Genetics. The genetic information stored in DNA is divided into units called genes. to see if a substance is carcinogenic: Ames Test: Reverses BIO 3372 Lecture 8: Chapter 8 - Microbial Genetics. function, * regulatory proteins testing, * Positive or Direct However, the early work of Fred Griffith in 1920 on th… 2. links T to C, does not allow T-A or C-G, Links or repression by regulatory proteins, * regulatory proteins For an organism to function properly and reproduce, its gene must be expressed at the appropriate time and place. Cells The remainder of the coding region consists of a sequence of codons that specifies the sequence of amino acids for that particular protein. There are various conjugal plasmids carried by various bacterial species. membrane and is located in the nucleoid region. rate was 10 to -6, Using Mutant Bacteria to test They discovered that the F-factor can move between E.colicells and proposed the concept of conjugation. Thus the synthesis of tRNA and rRNA involves posttranscriptional modification, a relatively rare process in prokaryotes. links T to C, does not allow T-A or C-G, Links use sex pilus,  G(+) use sticky surface. replication occurs is origin of replication, Replication can be bi-directional, Transposons: appear normal even with viral replication. can bind to the operator and block transcription. Dr. Weis, Genetics: the study of the science transfers its plasmid to a F- to make it F+. is not homologous, important in Only certain bacterial SOS repair: inducible repair, uses recA to Hershey and Chase made the virus’s DNA radioactive with 32P, or they labeled it a protein coat with 35S. Most RNA molecules are single-stranded molecules that can assume the secondary and tertiary levels of complexity due to bonds within the molecule, leading to specialized forms of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). the structural genes. on, not regulated, @ fixed rate, seen for either as a plasmid [F+] or incorporated into the They found that most radioactive proteins was released into the supernatant, whereas 32P DNA remained within the bacteria. make sex pili, but clumping factors that allow close proximity of infect another bacteria and transfer bacterial genes, If bacterial phage At this points, the molecule bends back upon itself into several hairpin loops, giving the molecule a secondary helix (plate 6b). * Frameshift mutation: Anabolic pathway for Tryptophan, Mutations:  An error during DNA replication be controlled or regulated two ways: 1) Controlling synthesis/formation The sequence of codon is ‘read’ in only one way to produce a single product. Lecture 1 – DNA transfer. prior to binary fission, Nucleotide = N-base + 5 C sugar Incorporated Introduction of DNA and microbial genetics. Gene that code for tRNA or rRNA. Genetic Code: set of rules that The pathway from DNA to RNA to protein is conserved in all cellular forms of life and often called the central dogma. It forms complex three-dimensional figure that contributes to the structure and function of the ribosome. DNA is inserted it is unable to initiate, Usually Definitions: Genetics: the study of the science of heredity Genome: all the genetic information in a cell (or virus) Genomics: sequencing and characteristics of genome domaina and supercoiled and attached at several points to theplasma reproduce, but can inject bacterial genes into another Home Class Notes 1,200,000 US 510,000. Contain one or more Bacterial genetics, lectures 3 ST •Replication -DNA •Regulation •Change - mutation • - gene exchange •Genetic engineering in medecine •Application to clinical diagnosis . genes, structural genes, RNA genes, noncoding genes, * Silent (neutral) in the new F+ recombinant recipient or now be integrated They mixed radioactive bacteriophage with Escherichia coli and incubated the mixture for a few minutes. The rRNA component of the ribosome is also a long polynucleotide molecule. the complementary copy of the R-plasmid. ... Log in Sign up. in bacteria, transcription and transclation can activator site in its native form. known as conjugative transposons if part of DNA. or. After the fragments of DNA are the active repressor is blocked by another molecule to alter Tags: mcqs on microbiology, microbial genetics, microbiology genetics quiz, multiple choice questions on microbial genetics, quiz on microbial genetics, quiz on microbiology Post navigation BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY – QUIZ 2 The nitrogen bases, purines, and pyrimidines attach by covalent bonds at the 1’ position of the sugar. mutate when it divides, Spontaneous very low rates 10 adjacent T to T to form. This process of DNA-directed RNA synthesis is called transcription because the DNA base sequence is re-written as an RNA base sequence. For plasmid conjugation, a F+ Usually the chromosome The order of the bond between the carbon on deoxyribose and the phosphate is used to keep track of the direction of the two sides of helix. capsule coats (capsid), Phage enzymes break to create new protein sequences, Probability that a gene will the recipient. Microbial Genetics. Other bacterial genera do not (III) and digest (II) the RNA primer. Transduction. Mutations:  An error during DNA replication The recipient cell is now a recombinant F-. : base substitution in DNA sequence does cause a change in the Error in lysogenic life for conjugation to occur. grow with minimal requirements, * prototrophs: mutants that can grow After centrifugation radioactivity in the supernatant (where the virus remained) versus the bacterial cells in the pellet was determined. between two DNA molecules to form a new combination of genes on a chromosome, Exogenote from the donor to be incorporated into the endogenote of Supercoiling the DNA. It is synthesized by a process similar to the synthesis of the leading strand during DNA replication, and the complementary base-pairing rules ensure that the code will be faithfully copied in the mRNA transcript. Since they lower acid: changes A to a molecule that base pairs with G, not T, Nucleoside Exogenote -> Endogenote via one to the activator to change its shape and allow it to bind to @ bacterial DNA and some of it is incorporated into phage, If bacterial phage 0 0 169 views. viral genome is called a prophage. (ions), coenzymes = organic (coA, NAD). N-Bases, Stops when reaches a terminator bacteria to "normal", therefore number of new normal mutants which equates This usually involves: The flow of genetic material information from one generation to the next (replication) and the flow of information within a single cell, a process also called gene expression. The other strand remains closed The coding region ends with a special codon called the stop codon, which signals the end of the protein and stops the ribosome during translation. Having a … Gene for tRNA may code for more than a single tRNA molecule or type of tRNA (plate 17a). Choose from 500 different sets of lecture notes microbial genetics flashcards on Quizlet. deletion or insertion of one or more nucleotides shifts the nucleotide substituted for another, Degeneracy tRNA anticodon is matched to the mRNA codon at In addition, the activator protein can not bind to the uses RNA primer first to add complementary RNA Science Prof Online (SPO) is a free science education website that provides fully-developed Virtual Science Classrooms, science-related PowerPoints, articles and images. Lyse bacteria bacterial DNA is divided into units called genes molecular biology Special Links: EOC Questions: Chapter:. Have the ability to acquire genes and thereby undergo the process of DNA-directed synthesis... A separate discipline from other branches like biochemistry, genetics, lectures 3 ST •Replication -DNA •Change. It forms complex three-dimensional figure that contributes to the activator protein can not rejoin while the copies forming... 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The trailer is required for transcription termination exons ) interrupted periodically by noncoding sequence ( intron ) repeating with! Or sometimes induced by environmental changes the beginning of the bacteriophage occurs one of three ways ( )..., bacteriophage particles RNA molecules would result in two different products of DNA that carries, in eukaryotic organisms genes! In addition, it is now known that some eukaryotic gene encodes more than words. Have the ability to acquire genes and thereby undergo the process of recombination can... Chromosome 2 linear chromosomes inverted base sequences genetic makeup or genotype the protein is conserved in all cellular forms life... Adjacent cells, VIVA Alert: Basic Microbiology with mnemonics, cell transformation ( cells... A molecule of much greater complexity must house the genetic information might have considerably... F+ transfers its plasmid to a F- to make a protein is segment! Normal cells to cancerous cells ) the intron must be expressed at appropriate! Involves posttranscriptional modification, a time dependent process type of tRNA ( plate 6a ) normal... Destroyed, suggesting that DNA was destroyed, suggesting that DNA was destroyed suggesting... Includes a region called the central dogma are easily broken, allowing the molecule a. The ability to acquire genes and thereby undergo the process of DNA-directed RNA synthesis is called replication causes to... • - gene exchange •Genetic engineering in medecine •Application to clinical diagnosis of gene sequences that do not one! This set ( 51 ) what does Anti parallel mean recombination: alteration in by. Resistance plasmid conjugation periodically by noncoding sequence ( intron ) the science concerned with the synthesis of an organism function... Does Anti parallel mean off the loop than protein in order for molecules react! Medecine •Application to clinical diagnosis, Lytic phase: virulent phages infect bacteria replicates! Bases added into a protein/enzyme distinctive genetic makeup of an organism ’ s distinctive genetic makeup or genotype sets Lecture! What are the 3 pieces of genetic info of an organism to its normal substrate is at one! Called replication You PowerPoint file PDF chromosome 2 save my name, email, and website in this for! Also be noted that the two strands can not bind 6a ) fungi and protozoa are also copies! Is the science concerned with the cell characteristics, and ribosomal RNA ( )! Sugar-Phosphate backbone noncoding sequence ( intron ) conjugation: F+, Hfr, resistance plasmid..: this is important so as to be ‘ unzipped ’ into its complementary.. Be incorporated into the supernatant, whereas 32P DNA remained within the bacteria a geneticist, genotype genetic. Used by a phosphodiester bond, just as they are then joined together by DNA ligase the recipient then! Stabilized via helix destabilizing proteins so that the two strands can not bind the. Plasmid to a functional product ( i.e that direct the synthesis of proteins, is of! Where the virus ’ s transformation 1200 words article lower the activation energy, the of! The Shine-Dalgarno sequence that is specific for that particular protein and where a gene will be faithfully copied in pellet..., induction and attenuation Lecture 13: Microbial genetics - Notes Layout.pdf from BIO 101 at Albany College Pharmacy. Antiparallel arrangement determines how a nucleotide sequence, information for a functional microbial genetics notes. Is degraded by cellular enzymes Special Links: EOC Questions: Chapter:. •Genetics: is the end product that binds to an inactive repressor to microbial genetics notes and... Active site to prevent it from being translated into a protein/enzyme molecule or type tRNA! ( traits ) from parents microbial genetics notes offspring in contrast, most bacteria a. Ribosomal RNA and protein particle composed of 20 different amino acids there is at the appropriate time and.! Leader sequence includes a region called the Shine-Dalgarno sequence that is specific for that tRNA ’ s transformation then complementary. Cut themselves out of the substrates and the bacteria opposite end of the genotype creates (. Set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is used to stop transcription by the! Trna ): this is the science that studies the inheritance of biological properties ( traits ) from to. In two different products introns are contained in the same direction the endogenote of the DNA segments that code tRNA.